Types of Dyslexia
Did you know that psychologists even categorize subtypes of Dyslexia. Dyslexia is now understood to be seen as a heterogeneous, specific, reading dysfunction, with each type having its own distinct coding pattern. A brief description of these types of Dyslexia follows:
- Dysnemkinesia: (Motor) Reversal problems in writing and printing. This literally means “poor memory of motor movements and this type involves number and letter reversals. It involves the frontal lobe, left hemisphere for right handed and right hemisphere for left handed. This Dyslexia is much less frequent than either Dyseidesia or Dysphonesia. The majority of Dyslexic individuals do not have a problem with letter reversals. Scholastic handicapping is relatively insignificant in students with this condition compared with those with Dysphonesia or Dyseidesia. This Dyslexia is easily cured in most cases. Dysgraphia, difficulty with writing, and Dyspraxia, difficulty with motor skills, are names synonymous with Dysnemkinesia.
- Dysphonesia: (Auditory) This Dyslexic has lots of trouble with phonics in reading (decoding) and spelling (encoding) of words. It is also called Phonological, Dysphonetic or Auditory Dyslexia. In Dysphonesia, students are able to spell words by sight but they are poor at phonetic spelling of words. Students should use the Orton-Gillingham method which is a multisensory approach involving integration of the visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic senses in a specialized structured program.
- Dyseidesia: (Visual) Sight word problems in reading (decoding) and spelling (encoding) of words. This type of Dyslexia is very genetic. Students slowly sound out words, but they have learned to read mostly by sight and they struggle with irregular words (said, who, any). They spell phonetically. This Dyslexia occurs in the left hemisphere for right-handed persons and some left-handed persons have linguistic functions in the right hemisphere of the brain. They rely heavily on time-consuming word-attack skills to decode words so their reading is slow and laborious. Phonetic decoding of unfamiliar or unknown words is poor; the dysphonetic individual has difficulty syllabicating, sounding out, and blending the sounds to decode the word. Word substitutions, such as home for house, are common. Students with this type of Dyslexia learn to read and spell the best by the sight word approach, also called the look/say method. An Orton-Gillingham method is suggested for this type of Dyslexia, too. Other names for this Dyslexia are Surface Dyslexia or Visual Dyslexia.
- Dysphoneidesia: A combination of 2+3; this is also called Mixed Dyslexia. This is a combination of phonological and visual Dyslexia. These students have severe deficits in reading as well as visual motor integration and working memory.
- Dysnemkinphonesia: A combination of 1+2;
- Dysnemkineidesia: A combination of 1+3
- Dysnemkinphoneidesia: A combination of 1+2+3
- Dysnomia: This is also named Semantic Dyslexia or Naming-Speed Dyslexia. The student has trouble recalling the correct word so they like to say “the thingy” when they cannot retrieve the word quickly.
- Double Deficit: This is when a student has both Dysphonesia or Phonological Dyslexia and Dysnomia.
- Dyscalculia- this means difficulty with Math.